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[原创]奥里利乌斯《沉思录》阅读翻译
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朝露可当酒 于 2006-04-14 14:28:24 发布在 凯迪社区 > 文化散论
在天涯闲闲书话看到有一群人自愿组织起来翻译英国大历史学家吉本的《罗马帝国衰亡史》全本,很是感动。我们当代中国人其实对西方了解很少,而且还有有意无意的误导,造成很大问题。要突破这一障碍,最基本也可以说是唯一的办法,就是直接读外文书,我在自己的学习和教学中一直坚持这么做,效果还不错。 唉!左思右想,自己实在不是振臂一挥的人物,极端缺乏组织能力,唯一能做的就是自我约束,这样吧,我不再出头号召,自己做就是了,敬请各位指点,一同讨论学习。 版权声明: 我的翻译尽管粗鄙,但保证都是自己的原创,各位网友可以讨论、批评,但转载请注明译者。敬请各位一定不要把我的译文用于商业性用途。 目录:(本网页内的分页) 第一章 第一页 第一楼 第二章 第六页 第八十一楼 第三章 第十页 第一百三十九楼 第四章 第十一页 第一百六十二楼 第五章 第十三页 第一百八十九楼 第六章 第十七页 第二百五十二楼 The Meditations 《沉思录》 By Marcus Aurelius 马库斯·奥里利乌斯 Translated by George Long 乔治·兰翻译 英汉翻译:朝露可当酒 BOOK ONE 第一章 从祖父维鲁斯(Verus)那儿,我学到了好的道德和对自己脾气的控制。 From my grandfather Verus I learned good morals and the government of my temper. 从父亲的声名和对他的记忆中,我获得了谦逊和果断的性格。 From the reputation and remembrance of my father, modesty and a manly character. 从母亲那儿,我学会了虔诚、仁慈和节欲,不但远离恶行,更摒弃恶念,更重要的是,我养成了简朴的生活习惯,远离奢豪的陋习。 From my mother, piety and beneficence, and abstinence, not only from evil deeds, but even from evil thoughts; and further, simplicity in my way of living, far removed from the habits of the rich. 从曾祖父那儿,我认识到不应该经常到公共学校去接受教育,而应该在家里聘请好的教师,人应该在自由的状态下接受教育。 From my great-grandfather, not to have frequented public schools, and to have had good teachers at home, and to know that on such things a man should spend liberally. 从监护人那儿,我明白了在大竞技场观看比赛时,既不能偏向绿党,也不能偏向蓝党;在观看角斗时,既不支持持圆盾的角斗士(Parmularius),也不支持持大盾牌的角斗士(Scutarius)。从他那儿,我还学到了如何长时间工作,如何清心节欲,如何凡事亲恭,如何不多管别人的闲事,如何不轻信诽谤。 From my governor, to be neither of the green nor of the blue party at the games in the Circus, nor a partizan either of the Parmularius or the Scutarius at the gladiators' fights; from him too I learned endurance of labour, and to want little, and to work with my own hands, and not to meddle with other people's affairs, and not to be ready to listen to slander. 从狄奥尼图斯(Diognetus)那儿,我懂得了不要把自己陷于琐事中;不要相信请神驱鬼之类的事;不要畏惧战斗,也不要让好斗的激情控制自己;广开言路;亲近哲学;熟悉诗歌,开始听三音步抑扬扬格,然后听Tandasis和进行曲;年轻时就开始写对话;做睡板床盖兽皮等等这些希腊式的训练。 From Diognetus, not to busy myself about trifling things, and not to give credit to what was said by miracle-workers and jugglers about incantations and the driving away of daemons and such things; and not to breed quails for fighting, nor to give myself up passionately to such things; and to endure freedom of speech; and to have become intimate with philosophy; and to have been a hearer, first of Bacchius, then of Tandasis and Marcianus; and to have written dialogues in my youth; and to have desired a plank bed and skin, and whatever else of the kind belongs to the Grecian discipline. 从汝斯堤古(Rusticus)那里,我感到应该锤炼自己的性格;明白了不要被误导而走上强词夺理的岐路,不写无把握之事,不要做缺乏激励的演讲,不要炫耀自己广闻博艺,不要为扬名而行善;不要沉迷于修辞、诗歌和书法;不要在屋内穿着外出的衣服闲逛,也不要做其他类似的内外不分之事;写信应该象汝斯堤古从Sinuessa写给我母亲的信那样简洁而质朴;对用言语和行为冒犯我的人一样保持尊重,一旦他们准备和解,即坦然接受;仔细阅读,不要浅尝即止;不要对夸夸其谈者轻表赞许;汝斯堤古(Rusticus)从他的收藏中拿出埃皮克提图(Epictetus)的对话与我分享,对此我心存感激。 From Rusticus I received the impression that my character required improvement and discipline; and from him I learned not to be led astray to sophistic emulation, nor to writing on speculative matters, nor to delivering little hortatory orations, nor to showing myself off as a man who practises much discipline, or does benevolent acts in order to make a display; and to abstain from rhetoric, and poetry, and fine writing; and not to walk about in the house in my outdoor dress, nor to do other things of the kind; and to write my letters with simplicity, like the letter which Rusticus wrote from Sinuessa to my mother; and with respect to those who have offended me by words, or done me wrong, to be easily disposed to be pacified and reconciled, as soon as they have shown a readiness to be reconciled; and to read carefully, and not to be satisfied with a superficial understanding of a book; nor hastily to give my assent to those who talk overmuch; and I am indebted to him for being acquainted with the discourses of Epictetus, which he communicated to me out of his own collection. 从阿波罗尼奥斯(Apollonius)那里,我领悟到了意志的自由和目标的坚如磐石;知道除了思考,应该目无旁骛,一如既往;应该泰然自若,即使身处剧痛,或正在经受丧子煎熬,或缠绵于病榻;从他这个活生生的例子中我清晰地领悟到一个人如何同时坚定不移而又灵活机智,如何毫不专断地发布指令;他向我展示了一个人如何以解释性的哲学原理清晰地思考自己的经验和技能,并把这看成自己最微不足道的德行;从他那里我还学到了如何从值得尊重的朋友那里有所收获,这样做时既不被他们看低,又不让他们被我所忽略。 From Apollonius I learned freedom of will and undeviating steadiness of purpose; and to look to nothing else, not even for a moment, except to reason; and to be always the same, in sharp pains, on the occasion of the loss of a child, and in long illness; and to see clearly in a living example that the same man can be both most resolute and yielding, and not peevish in giving his instruction; and to have had before my eyes a man who clearly considered his experience and his skill in expounding philosophical principles as the smallest of his merits; and from him I learned how to receive from friends what are esteemed favours, without being either humbled by them or letting them pass unnoticed. 塞克斯都(Sextus)让我看到了一种仁慈的禀性,以父亲的权威掌管家族的榜样,以及顺生自然的理念;他教给我如何行为庄重而不做作,如何仔细照看朋友的利益,如何容忍无知的和不经思量就形成意见的人,他具有让自己适应一切人的能力,因此与他交谈要比听任何阿谀奉承让人高兴;同时他受到与其交往的人的最崇敬爱戴,他同时在理智与方法上具有发现与遵从两种品行,这是人生必需的两种原则;他从来喜怒不表于外,完全摆脱了激情的纠扰,但同时又让人觉得最为和蔼可亲;他能不事张扬地表达赞许,博学多闻而毫不卖弄。 From Sextus, a benevolent disposition, and the example of a family governed in a fatherly manner, and the idea of living conformably to nature; and gravity without affectation, and to look carefully,after the interests of friends, and to tolerate ignorant persons, and those who form opinions without consideration: he had the power of readily accommodating himself to all, so that intercourse with him was more agreeable than any flattery; and at the same time he was most highly venerated by those who associated with him: and he had the faculty both of discovering and ordering, in an intelligent and methodical way, the principles necessary for life; and he never showed anger or any other passion, but was entirely free from passion, and also most affectionate; and he could express approbation without noisy display, and he possessed much knowledge without ostentation. 从文法学家亚历山大那里,我学到了不吹毛求疵,不用责备的语调责骂那些说出任何野蛮的、失礼的或闻所未闻话语的人;而是巧妙地导向不管是回答问题还是给予证实的恰当表达,或是一起弄清问题而不纠缠于词句,或者提出其他合适的建议。 From Alexander the grammarian, to refrain from fault-finding, and not in a reproachful way to chide those who uttered any barbarous or solecistic or strange-sounding expression; but dexterously to introduce the very expression which ought to have been used, and in the way of answer or giving confirmation, or joining in an inquiry about the thing itself, not about the word, or by some other fit suggestion. 从富兰托(Fronto)那里我学会了观察暴君身上有着怎样的嫉妒、奸诈和伪善,以及那些在我们中间被称为贵族的人是如何缺乏父性的慈爱。 From Fronto I learned to observe what envy, and duplicity, and hypocrisy are in a tyrant, and that generally those among us who are called Patricians are rather deficient in paternal affection. 从柏拉图主义者亚历山大(Alexander the Platonic)那里,我学到了不要经常或无必要在谈话或写信中告诉别人:我很忙;也不要经常以有要事为借口,拒绝那些和我们生活在一起的人提出的要求。 From Alexander the Platonic, not frequently nor without necessity to say to any one, or to write in a letter, that I have no leisure; nor continually to excuse the neglect of duties required by our relation to those with whom we live, by alleging urgent occupations. 从卡塔路斯(Catulus)那里,我懂得了不要对一位有毛病的朋友漠然视之,即使这一毛病如此显而易见,而是要努力让他恢复到正常的秉性;要称颂教师,正如多米提乌斯(Domitius)和Athenodotus所为;真心地关爱自己的孩子。 From Catulus, not to be indifferent when a friend finds fault, even if he should find fault without reason, but to try to restore him to his usual disposition; and to be ready to speak well of teachers, as it is reported of Domitius and Athenodotus; and to love my children truly. 从我的兄弟西弗勒斯(Severus)那里,我学到了要爱自己的亲戚,爱真理,爱正义;通过他我认识了西弗勒斯(Thrasea)、赫尔维乌斯(Helvidius)、小加图(Cato)、迪翁(Dion)和布鲁图斯(Brutus);通过他我接受了如下观念:国家政体必须保证法律面前人人平等,保障言论平等与言论自由,君主政府要尊重全体臣民中绝大部分人的自由;从他那里我还学到了坚持不懈钻研哲学的精神;养成了行善、乐于助人、珍惜机会、相信朋友的秉性;从他身上我还看到质朴的品质,对其所憎严加斥责,对其所爱坦荡真诚。 From my brother Severus, to love my kin, and to love truth, and to love justice; and through him I learned to know Thrasea, Helvidius, Cato, Dion, Brutus; and from him I received the idea of a polity in which there is the same law for all, a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed; I learned from him also consistency and undeviating steadiness in my regard for philosophy; and a disposition to do good, and to give to others readily, and to cherish good hopes, and to believe that I am loved by my friends; and in him I observed no concealment of his opinions with respect to those whom he condemned, and that his friends had no need to conjecture what he wished or did not wish, but it was quite plain. 从马克西米鲁斯(Maximus)那里,我学会了自制和坚定不移;学会了在任何环境中,即使病痛中也乐观开朗;学会了如何在自己的德行中保持刚柔并济。我发现人们一致公认马克西米鲁斯表里如一,所言所行从无恶意;他从不表露出惊愕和诧异之情,从不手忙脚乱,从不拖延,也从不困惑沮丧,从不以大笑掩饰恼怒,也从来未曾冲动或迟疑。他习惯于行善,宽厚仁慈,真诚坦率;他一看就是天生的正人君子,无需修饰。我还发现,人们无法想象自己被马克西米鲁斯所轻视,或认为自己胜过他,他谈吐风趣幽默,恰当得体。 From Maximus I learned self-government, and not to be led aside by anything; and cheerfulness in all circumstances, as well as in illness; and a just admixture in the moral character of sweetness and dignity, and to do what was set before me without complaining. I observed that everybody believed that he thought as he spoke, and that in all that he did he never had any bad intention; and he never showed amazement and surprise, and was never in a hurry, and never put off doing a thing, nor was perplexed nor dejected, nor did he ever laugh to disguise his vexation, nor, on the other hand, was he ever passionate or suspicious. He was accustomed to do acts of beneficence, and was ready to forgive, and was free from all falsehood; and he presented the appearance of a man who could not be diverted from right rather than of a man who had been improved. I observed, too, that no man could ever think that he was despised by Maximus, or ever venture to think himself a better man. He had also the art of being humorous in an agreeable way. 在我父亲身上,我看到了温和的个性,以及深思熟虑做出决断后的刚毅坚定;他对世人所谓荣誉弃之以鼻;热爱工作,持之以恒;随时准备倾听对增进人们福祉有益的建议;赏罚分明,从不含混;从积极的行动和对人宽恕的经验中获得知识。我观察到他克服了一切对男孩的欲望;从不认为自己比别的公民高贵;他免除了朋友陪他一起进晚餐的义务,免除了当他出国时朋友必须随行的义务,对那些有紧急情况要处理的而缺席的人,他从不另眼相待。我还发现他对要商议的一切事情有仔细调查的习惯,并持之以恒,对一眼看上去表面上令人满意的事物从不就此止步,而是继续深入调查;他的秉性是留住朋友而不是很快对其感到厌倦,但也不会使其情感泛滥成灾;知足常乐;未雨绸缪,不动声色,防微杜渐;即刻阻止群氓的欢呼和所有奉承;对管理帝国所必须的事物保持高度警惕,精打细算,耐心而不耻下问地学习这一技能;不迷信诸神,不试图用礼物或计谋获得人们的支持,不讨好平民;对所有事物保持清醒,坚定不移,不起卑劣之念,不行卑劣之事,不标新立异。对生活有益的任何东西,尽管上天赐予的数量超过了必需,但他从不为自己找借口而奢侈挥霍;所以当拥有这些东西时,他开心享受,毫不虚伪,当没有的时候,他随意而安,不事强求。没有一个人会说他是一个诡辩家或油嘴滑舌的家奴,或一个冬烘;人人都认为他是一个成熟的,完美的,不受谗言影响的,有能力处理好自己和他人事务的人。除此之外,他对真正的哲学家关爱备至,对假冒的哲学家拒之千里,更不会轻易为其所误导。他善于交流,和蔼可亲,没有任何无礼的虚伪。他不像那些过度依恋生命之人,也不像那些对自己的外貌毫不顾及之人,而是合理的关注自己身体的健康状况,通过这样的关注,他几乎不需要医生、药物以及其他外在的东西来维护其健康。他对那些具有特殊才能的人,比如雄辩之人或具有对法律、道德知识的人或其他人,极为推崇,毫无嫉妒之心;他帮助他们,让每一个人由于他的奖赏而声名远扬;他总是遵从自己国家的法律而行事,在这么做是没有丝毫做作。而且,他不喜欢变化和不稳定,而是喜欢呆在一个地方,用同样的东西;头疼发作一过,他立刻精力充沛地投入到日常工作中。他无所谓私事,即使有也微不足道,他的事即公众之事;他对展出公共展示品和修建公共建筑非常审慎和节俭,他行捐助民众等等之类事,他这么做是因为他觉得应该这么做,而不是为了博取声名。他在适合的时间沐浴;对所居之所,所食之味,所穿之衣的质地和颜色,以及随身奴仆的容貌并无苛求。他的服装来自Lorium,庄园住宅建在Lanuvium的海滩上;我们知道他在图斯库卢姆(Tusculum)如何对待恳求他宽恕的包税人;这就是他的所有作为。在他身上,没有刻薄,没有苛求,没有狂暴,也没有如人们所言把一件事推向极端;他满怀激情,坚持不懈地以一种秩序井然的方式毫不含混地多次反复核查事情,好像他有足够的时间。可以把人们称赞苏格拉底的话用到他身上:他是这样的一个人,他能戒绝常人因软弱不能戒绝的东西,也能享用许多人因不知节制而难以享用的东西。心灵强健到能忍受放弃,冷静到能充分享受,这是一个人具有完美而不可征服的灵魂的标志,正如他在马克西米鲁斯生病时的表现。 In my father I observed mildness of temper, and unchangeable resolution in the things which he had determined after due deliberation; and no vainglory in those things which men call honours; and a love of labour and perseverance; and a readiness to listen to those who had anything to propose for the common weal; and undeviating firmness in giving to every man according to his deserts; and a knowledge derived from experience of the occasions for vigorous action and for remission. And I observed that he had overcome all passion for boys; and he considered himself no more than any other citizen; and he released his friends from all obligation to sup with him or to attend him of necessity when he went abroad, and those who had failed to accompany him, by reason of any urgent circumstances, always found him the same. I observed too his habit of careful inquiry in all matters of deliberation, and his persistency, and that he never stopped his investigation through being satisfied with appearances which first present themselves; and that his disposition was to keep his friends, and not to be soon tired of them, nor yet to be extravagant in his affection; and to be satisfied on all occasions, and cheerful; and to foresee things a long way off, and to provide for the smallest without display; and to check immediately popular applause and all flattery; and to be ever watchful over the things which were necessary for the administration of the empire, and to be a good manager of the expenditure, and patiently to endure the blame which he got for such conduct; and he was neither superstitious with respect to the gods, nor did he court men by gifts or by trying to please them, or by flattering the populace; but he showed sobriety in all things and firmness, and never any mean thoughts or action, nor love of novelty.And the things which conduce in any way to the commodity of life, and of which fortune gives an abundant supply, he used without arrogance and without excusing himself; so that when he had them, he enjoyed them without affectation, and when he had them not, he did not want them. No one could ever say of him that he was either a sophist or a home-bred flippant slave or a pedant; but every one acknowledged him to be a man ripe, perfect, above flattery, able to manage his own and other men's affairs. Besides this, he honoured those who were true philosophers, and he did not reproach those who pretended to be philosophers, nor yet was he easily led by them. He was also easy in conversation, and he made himself agreeable without any offensive affectation. He took a reasonable care of his body's health, not as one who was greatly attached to life, nor out of regard to personal appearance, nor yet in a careless way, but so that, through his own attention, he very seldom stood in need of the physician's art or of medicine or external applications. He was most ready to give way without envy to those who possessed any particular faculty, such as that of eloquence or knowledge of the law or of morals, or of anything else; and he gave them his help, that each might enjoy reputation according to his deserts; and he always acted conformably to the institutions of his country, without showing any affectation of doing so. Further, he was not fond of change nor unsteady, but he loved to stay in the same places, and to employ himself about the same things; and after his paroxysms of headache he came immediately fresh and vigorous to his usual occupations. His secrets were not but very few and very rare, and these only about public matters; and he showed prudence and economy in the exhibition of the public spectacles and the construction of public buildings, his donations to the people, and in such things, for he was a man who looked to what ought to be done, not to the reputation which is got by a man's acts. He did not take the bath at unseasonable hours; he was not fond of building houses, nor curious about what he ate, nor about the texture and colour of his clothes, nor about the beauty of his slaves. His dress came from Lorium, his villa on the coast, and from Lanuvium generally. We know how he behaved to the toll-collector at Tusculum who asked his pardon; and such was all his behaviour. There was in him nothing harsh, nor implacable, nor violent, nor, as one may say, anything carried to the sweating point; but he examined all things severally, as if he had abundance of time, and without confusion, in an orderly way, vigorously and consistently. And that might be applied to him which is recorded of Socrates, that he was able both to abstain from, and to enjoy, those things which many are too weak to abstain from, and cannot enjoy without excess. But to be strong enough both to bear the one and to be sober in the other is the mark of a man who has a perfect and invincible soul, such as he showed in the illness of Maximus. 感谢诸神让我拥有如此优秀的祖先、父母、姐妹、老师、助手和亲戚朋友,让我拥有的一切近乎完美。感谢诸神,没有让我草率地冒犯他们中的任何人,我秉性急躁,如果机缘不巧,我会做傻事的,但托诸神之福,我一直时运顺当。感谢诸神,我不是在父亲妃子的后宫里被哺育,少年时代如花朵般灿烂,在适当的时候,甚至还稍后一点才成为男子汉。感谢诸神,让我拥有一个能够让我懂得谦和,让我明白一个人即使生活在宫廷里仍然可以不带警卫,不穿华服,没有火炬和雕像等等奢侈摆设的统治者和父亲。具有如此权势的一个人让自己和普通公民一样朴素生活,而且没有因为如此而变得思想卑下,对造福大众同时在某种意义上有益君主的事玩忽职守。感谢诸神,赐我如此优秀的一位兄弟,他能够用自己的德行唤起我的自律,同时又用他的尊重和友情感动我;感谢诸神,我的孩子聪明伶俐,健康活泼;我没有沉迷于修辞、诗歌和其它这类学习,如果我以前发现自己学习这些东西时有所进步,那我可能会全身心投入其中;我毫不迟疑地把荣誉颁给那些抚育我成长的人,他们希望得到这一荣誉,但有人希望我过些时候再这么做,因为他们还年轻,我拒绝了;我还认识了阿波罗尼乌斯(Apollonius)、汝斯堤古(Rusticus)和马克西米鲁斯(Maximus)。清晰的印象经常出现在我心中,告诉我顺生自然,告诉我那是一种什么样的人生,因此,只要依靠诸神及其赐福,其保佑,其启示,就没有什么能阻止我顺生自然,尽管由于我自身的不足和没有注意诸神的警告(或者差不多可以说是诸神的直接指令),我还不能完全做到;我的身体已经维持了很长一段时间这种生活;我永远不会接触本尼迪克特(Benedicta)或狄奥多士(Theodotus),我曾经陷入恋爱的激情,但现在已经摆脱;当我和汝斯堤古(Rusticus)在一起时常常发脾气,但我从来没有做过一件让人后悔的事;尽管命中注定我母亲要夭亡,但她生命中的最后一年是和我一起度过的;每当我希望为人排忧解难或做其它事的时候,我从未告诉别人我爱莫能助;对我自己而言我从未陷于一筹莫展之地,需要别人的帮助;我有一位如此贤惠的妻子,温顺、挚爱、单纯;我的孩子有足够的好老师;神通过梦和其他方式向我指明了药物,用来治疗咳血、眼花等等疾病;当我迷上哲学时,没有被任何一个智者所迷惑,我没有浪费时间去撰写历史,思考三段论,或研究天象;因为所有这些需要得到神和命运的帮助。 在Granua的干谷(这是作者写作这一章的地点) To the gods I am indebted for having good grandfathers, good parents, a good sister, good teachers, good associates, good kinsmen and friends, nearly everything good. Further, I owe it to the gods that I was not hurried into any offence against any of them, though I had a disposition which, if opportunity had offered, might have led me to do something of this kind; but, through their favour, there never was such a concurrence of circumstances as put me to the trial. Further, I am thankful to the gods that I was not longer brought up with my grandfather's concubine, and that I preserved the flower of my youth, and that I did not make proof of my virility before the proper season, but even deferred the time; that I was subjected to a ruler and a father who was able to take away all pride from me, and to bring me to the knowledge that it is possible for a man to live in a palace without wanting either guards or embroidered dresses, or torches and statues, and such-like show; but that it is in such a man's power to bring himself very near to the fashion of a private person, without being for this reason either meaner in thought, or more remiss in action, with respect to the things which must be done for the public interest in a manner that befits a ruler. I thank the gods for giving me such a brother, who was able by his moral character to rouse me to vigilance over myself, and who, at the same time, pleased me by his respect and affection; that my children have not been stupid nor deformed in body; that I did not make more proficiency in rhetoric, poetry, and the other studies, in which I should perhaps have been completely engaged, if I had seen that I was making progress in them; that I made haste to place those who brought me up in the station of honour, which they seemed to desire, without putting them off with hope of my doing it some time after, because they were then still young; that I knew Apollonius, Rusticus, Maximus; that I received clear and frequent impressions about living according to nature, and what kind of a life that is, so that, so far as depended on the gods, and their gifts, and help, and inspirations, nothing hindered me from forthwith living according to nature, though I still fall short of it through my own fault, and through not observing the admonitions of the gods, and, I may almost say, their direct instructions; that my body has held out so long in such a kind of life; that I never touched either Benedicta or Theodotus, and that, after having fallen into amatory passions, I was cured; and, though I was often out of humour with Rusticus, I never did anything of which I had occasion to repent; that, though it was my mother's fate to die young, she spent the last years of her life with me; that, whenever I wished to help any man in his need, or on any other occasion, I was never told that I had not the means of doing it; and that to myself the same necessity never happened, to receive anything from another; that I have such a wife, so obedient, and so affectionate, and so simple; that I had abundance of good masters for my children; and that remedies have been shown to me by dreams, both others, and against bloodspitting and giddiness...; and that, when I had an inclination to philosophy, I did not fall into the hands of any sophist, and that I did not waste my time on writers of histories, or in the resolution of syllogisms, or occupy myself about the investigation of appearances in the heavens; for all these things require the help of the gods and fortune. Among the Quadi at the Granua. [align=right][size=2][color=#000066][此贴子已经被作者于2006-5-12 13:17:45编辑过][/color][/size][/align]
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回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:34:01    跟帖回复:
   沙发
支持一个先。但如何选定篇目,与各人专业有关,兄要仔细斟酌一番,先推荐出来投票决定如何
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:34:34    跟帖回复:
3
来凯迪也有段时间了,对这里也有些了解,对各位的学识很佩服,但仔细看下来,似乎对一些中外基本经典的了解并不充分,因此我觉得大家如果一起来读书,既可提高自己,也可以改善论坛氛围,不会一天到晚陷于无聊中,与人于己都不无益处。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:35:57    跟帖回复:
4
或者有网友希望自己及大家阅读而又目前没有译本的原版书籍推荐出来也可
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:37:38    跟帖回复:
5
支持。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:37:42    跟帖回复:
6
大家可否先推荐一些书目?我是搞人文学科的,对哲学、美学、文学、社会学都有兴趣。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:39:45    跟帖回复:
7
精神上支持有学问的人来搞,像俺这样子的粗人就可以吃现成的了,呵呵
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:39:53    跟帖回复:
8
不一定要没翻译过的,现在有些译本并不可靠。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:40:43    跟帖回复:
9
是这样的。以前见过一些书读起来结结巴巴,于是就放弃了,呵呵
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 14:59:09    跟帖回复:
10
翻译是吃透原作的再创作.看有些书之所以翻译得结结吧吧,那就是错误的以为懂外文就能翻译著作之过. 这就如同中国人都说汉语,国外的人连小孩都懂外国话.但他们并不都是中国作家或外国作家是一个道理.:)) 支持楼主提倡的这种好事.我是外语盲,也等着看吃现成饭:))
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 15:03:27    跟帖回复:
11
文章提交者:朝露可当酒 加帖在 文化散论 【凯迪网络】 http://www.kdnet.net 大家可否先推荐一些书目?我是搞人文学科的,对哲学、美学、文学、社会学都有兴趣。 --------------------- 那我先请教你关于犬儒主义的定义,我正在写《超越犬儒主义》。谢谢。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 15:42:29    跟帖回复:
12
我想先译The Meditations,By Marcus Aurelius,Translated by George Long,很有意思,斯多葛派的东西。先把作者简介发在下面,大家看看。 Marcus Aurelius The Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius was perhaps the only true philosopher- king in the history of the world. He was not an original nor a systematic philosopher, but in his meditations, a series of notes to himself, he formulated his pantheist Stoic beliefs with a passionate religious conviction. He shared the basic Stoic belief in the divinity of the cosmos as an intelligent being with a soul, and stressed (perhaps too fatalistically) the harmony of all things and the importance of resigning oneself to whatever happened. Marcus Aurelius reigned from 161 AD to 180 AD. He seems to have been a good and conscientious ruler who was magnanimous towards his enemies. He banned informers, stamped down hard on corruption, and freed slaves at every opportunity. Although he tolerated the circus, he ordered gladiators to fight with blunted points. Needing extra funds for his wars in Eastern Europe, he refused to raise taxes but instead held a public auction of his own golden tableware and of his wife's silk and gold embroidered dresses. The Meditations were written day by day, in every situation including war. They often appear to be responses to the stress of supreme power, from the imminent fear of death in battle, to the trials of everyday life. With hindsight Marcus' greatest omission was that he did not impose Stoicism as the imperial religion, with as much rigour as Theodosius later imposed Christianity. Had he done so, the history of the world might have turned out very differently. But the fact that he was more tolerant might be regarded as another of his virtues.
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 15:44:15    跟帖回复:
13
Summary of Stoicism Philosophy Introduction to Meditations, by D.A. Rees. 1960 His tutor Fronto, was a leader of the literary movement of the day, and affected a highly precious style studded with archaisms; Marcus felt considerable affection for him personally, but it was not long before he began to react against an education which stressed form rather than content, and whose sole ideal was that of literary excellence. His reaction was towards philosophy, but towards philosophy seen not as a matter of abstract theory but as a way of life, in the Cynic and Stoic tradition of the times, stressing moral self-sufficiency and an ascetic disregard for external goods. (p. ii. Rees. 1960) What of the philosophical religion of Stoicism, which Marcus himself professed, and of which his Meditations form the most widely known document for the modern world, the Manual of Epictetus occupying the second place? The Stoic school has as its founder Zeno of Citium in Cyprus, who came to Athens as a young man about 315-313 B.C., studied philosophy there under various teachers and in particular under Crates the Cynic and soon after 300 B.C. set up his own school in the Painted Porch or Arcade (Stoa Poikile), from which his followers took their name. But to understand Stoicism we must go back a little earlier, and see what the philosophical tradition was into which Zeno thus entered. The earliest phase of Greek philosophy was that of the Ionian cosmologists, who, from the time of Thales (c.585 B.C.) onwards, set out to interpret the universe in terms of some primary form of matter, water or air (probably mist) or ‘the infinite’ (indefinite matter). (p.v. Rees. 1960) Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 500B.C) , celebrated in antiquity as ‘the dark’ by reason of his oracular and cryptic mode of utterance. This indeed exposed him only too easily to misrepresentation, sympathetic and unsympathetic alike, and the Stoics saw in him the progenitor of their doctrines of cosmic reason, and of a universe in which a special significance attached to the element of fire, and which would eventually return to fire and be absorbed in it, through an endless series of periodical conflagrations. This last doctrine, it is now agreed, was not of Heraclitus himself. The early cosmological phase of Greek philosophy drew gradually to a close (apart from later manifestations, such as the atomism of Democritus in the second half of the fifth century.) Bewildered by the variety of conflicting speculations with which they were confronted, and influenced in some cases by a radical scepticism of the possibility of knowing anything at all of the ultimate nature of the universe, men turned their attention to the human rather than to the cosmic scene, to the questions of ethics and politics, to the most pressing question of all: ‘What is the good life, and how should men know it and live it?’ For there were men like Protagoras, sophists as they were called, who claimed to teach precisely this, and there was Socrates too (469-399) who questioned such pretensions among the sophists, but whose interest like theirs was centered on problems of human conduct: ‘What is virtue, and how can it be acquired?’ ‘What is justice?’ ‘What is piety?’ and so on. But Socrates was not a constructive philosopher- which helps to explain why his followers held such a bewildering variety of views- and what struck men above all in him was his fearless and rugged independence of character, conjoined with the assertion of the place of man’s reason in the proper government of his life. For he seems to have held, in accord with what we may call the sophist tradition, that knowledge of the right course of action would suffice to ensure that a man carried it out, that virtue was knowledge and vice ignorance. For him , as the Stoics later, the ideal of the wise man was all-sufficient. Among Socrates’ followers, Plato (427-347) , the greatest of all, went further than his master and constructed a daring system of metaphysics, a system one of whose mainsprings lay in man’s moral conceptions. The Platonic Idea or Forms, it was held, were the most fully real and fully knowable entities, and at the apex of their hierarchy, at any rate in the Republic, stood the Idea of the Good, in some sense the principle of thought and of action alike. Plato’s ethical system, in this as in much else typically Greek, was grounded in his cosmology, and ideal conduct was not ultimately separable from the knowledge of the philosopher; his knowledge was, indeed, itself the highest good. (p. vi. Rees. 1960) Like both Plato and Aristotle, Zeno based his teaching about conduct on his theory of the nature of the universe in general, and the nature of man in particular. Again, though interpreting wisdom differently, Zeno, like Plato and Aristotle, and (more closely, perhaps) like Socrates before them, found his complete ideal realised in his picture of the wise man. (p. viii. Rees. 1960) In the period stretching from Zeno to Marcus, Stoicism was the most important of the Greek philosophical schools. As against the Epicureans, it asserted the claims of virtue as higher than pleasure, and, rejecting the domination of atoms and chance, proclaimed a universe ordered by divine providence; as against the Sceptics it upheld a dogmatic cosmology, and maintained the existence of truths which could be grasped with certainty. (p. viii. Rees. 1960) Hence both the rationalistic and the universalistic aspects of Stoic ethics, which held that all shared a like in a common nature and so were akin to one another, and hence also its predestinarian stress on recognition of the divine necessity in all things, and glad acceptance of the wise providence present throughout. In such a world the citadel of a man’s soul was all-important, for there and there only had he control ... (p. ix. Rees. 1960) Stoicism was forced to disregard in its doctrine of freedom those all-pervading social pressures which radically condition our beliefs and attitudes, of which Aristotle had shown more awareness, and upon which thinkers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have laid so much stress. (p. xi. Rees. 1960)
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 15:44:39    跟帖回复:
14
Marcus Aurelius, 'Meditations' Quotations The Universe is change, life is an opinion. (Marcus Aurelius) Everything harmonises with me which is harmonious to thee, O Universe. Nothing for me is too early or too late, which is in due time for thee. Everything is fruit to me which thy seasons bring, O Nature: from thee are all things, in thee are all things, to thee all things return.’ (Marcus Aurelius) (Bertrand Russell, The History of Western Philosophy) ‘Frequently consider the connection of all things in the universe.’ (Marcus Aurelius) (Russell) ‘We should not say ‘I am an Athenian’ or ‘I am a Roman’ but ‘I am a citizen of the Universe.’’ (Marcus Aurelius) (Russell) Constantly think of the Universe as one living creature, embracing one being and one soul; how all is absorbed into the one consciousness of this living creature; how it compasses all things with a single purpose, and how all things work together to cause all that comes to pass, and their wonderful web and texture. (Marcus Aurelius) Men look for retreats for themselves, the country, the seashore, the hills; and you yourself, too, are peculiarly accustomed to feel the same want. Yet all this is very unlike a philosopher, when you may at any hour you please retreat into yourself. For nowhere does a man retreat into more quiet or more privacy than into his own mind, especially one who has within such things that he has only to look into, and become at once in perfect ease; and by ease I mean nothing else but good behaviour. Continually therefore grant yourself this retreat and repair yourself. But let them be brief and fundamental truths, which will suffice at once by their presence to wash away all sorrow, and to send you back without repugnance to the life to which you return. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p18) Death is like birth, a mystery of Nature; a coming together out of identical elements and a dissolution into the same. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p19) 24. Democritus has said: ‘Do few things, if you would enjoy tranquility.’ (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p22) 45. What follows is always organically related to what went before; for it is not like a simple enumeration of units separately determined by necessity, but a rational combination; and as Being is arranged in a mutual co-ordination, so the phenomena of Becoming display no bare succession but a wonderful organic interrelation. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p24) Reason and the method of reasoning are abilities, sufficient to themselves and their own operations. Thus they start from their appropriate principle and proceed to their proposed end; wherefore reasonable acts are called right acts, to indicate the rightness of their path. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p31) As are your repeated imaginations so will your mind be, for the soul is dyed by its imaginations. Dye it then in a succession of imaginations like these: for instance, where it is possible to live, there also it is possible to live well: but it is possible to live in a palace, ergo it is also possible to live well in a palace. Or once more: a creature is made for that in whose interest it was created: and that for which it was made, to this it tends: and to what it tends, in this is its end: and where its end is, there is the advantage and the good alike of each creature: therefore fellowship is the good of a reasonable creature. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p31) Is it not strange that ignorance and complaisance are stronger than wisdom. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p31) 23. Repeatedly dwell on the swiftness of the passage and departure of things that are and of things that come to be. For substance is like a river in perpetual flux, its activities are in continuous changes, and its causes in myriad varieties, and there is scarce anything which stands still, even what is near at hand; dwell, too, on the infinite gulf of the past and the future, in which all things vanish away. Then how is he not a fool who in all this is puffed up or distracted or takes it hardly, as if he were in some lasting scene, which has troubled him for so long? 24. Call to mind the whole of Substance of which you have a very small portion, and the whole of time whereof a small hair’s breadth has been determined for you, and of the chain of causation whereof you are how small a link. 6. The noblest kind of retribution is not to become like your enemy. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p35) Reflect upon the multitude of bodily and mental events taking place in the same brief time, simultaneously in every one of us and so you will not be surprised that many more events, or rather all things that come to pass, exist simultaneously in the one and entire unity, which we call the Universe. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p38) 30. Take heed not to be transformed into a Caesar, not to be dipped in the purple dye; for it does happen. Keep yourself therefore simple, good, pure, grave, unaffected, the friend of justice, religious, kind, affectionate, strong for your proper work. Wrestle to continue to be the man Philosophy wished to make you. Reverence the gods, save men. Life is brief; there is one harvest of earthly existence, a holy disposition and neighbourly acts. In all things like a pupil of Antoninus; his energy on behalf of what was done in accord with reason, his equability everywhere, his serene expression, his sweetness, his disdain of glory, his ambition to grasp affairs. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p39) 38. Meditate often upon the bond of all in the Universe and their mutual relationship. For all things are in a way woven together and all are because of this dear to one another; for these follow in order one upon another because of the stress movement and common spirit and the unification of matter. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p40) One thing here is of great price, to live out life with truth and righteousness ... (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, P42) 48. Whenever you desire to cheer yourself, think upon the merits of those who are still alive with you; the energy of one, the instance, the modesty of another, the generosity of a third, of another some other gift. For nothing is so cheering as the images of the virtues shining in the character of contemporaries, and meeting so far as possible in a group. Therefore you should keep them read to your hand. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, P42) 50. Endeavour to persuade them, but act even if they themselves are unwilling, when the rule of justice so directs. (Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, p42)
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006-04-14 15:45:56    跟帖回复:
15
是个好主意,只是那些高手们愿不愿意去做
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快速回复:[原创]奥里利乌斯《沉思录》阅读翻译
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