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回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 9:02:10   
196
For those persons have their peculiar leading principle and follow their peculiar movement; which things do not thou regard, but go straight on, following thy own nature and the common nature; and the way of both is one.

那些人有着自己独特的行事原则,且随时关注他们的独特行动;这些事与你无关,却是依着你的本性和共同本性,朝前发展;两个本性的路,实为同一。

============================
follow 目光跟随。
regard 与...有关。

天下事情实在太多,不可能皇帝事事亲躬。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 13:11:42   
197
你说,人们无法赞美你智慧的锐利。——就算这样吧:但你对许多其他的事情也无法做出判断,自然没有赋予我这方面的才能。表现出那些你力所能及的品质:真诚、严肃、吃苦耐劳、厌恶享乐、知足、俭朴、仁慈、坦率、不贵难得之货、不行小惠。看,你立刻就能展示出那么多好的品质,没有以自然赋予你的能力不足或不胜任为借口来逃避,那为何你还心甘情愿妄想虚名?或者,你被迫以自然提供给你的残缺来抱怨、吝啬、谄媚、给自己可怜的身体找毛病、试图取悦他人、虚张声势、心灵不得安宁?不,以诸神的名义:你应该与这些很久以前就泾渭分明了。就算你真的在理解力上变得相当迟钝和愚昧,你也必须竭尽所能超越这一状况,既不否认,也不以愚蠢为乐。
Thou sayest, Men cannot admire the sharpness of thy wits.- Be it so: but there are many other things of which thou canst not say, I am not formed for them by nature. Show those qualities then which are altogether in thy power, sincerity, gravity, endurance of labour, aversion to pleasure, contentment with thy portion and with few things, benevolence, frankness, no love of superfluity, freedom from trifling magnanimity. Dost thou not see how many qualities thou art immediately able to exhibit, in which there is no excuse of natural incapacity and unfitness, and yet thou still remainest voluntarily below the mark? Or art thou compelled through being defectively furnished by nature to murmur, and to be stingy, and to flatter, and to find fault with thy poor body, and to try to please men, and to make great display, and to be so restless in thy mind? No, by the gods: but thou mightest have been delivered from these things long ago. Only if in truth thou canst be charged with being rather slow and dull of comprehension, thou must exert thyself about this also, not neglecting it nor yet taking pleasure in thy dulness.
当人们服务于他人时,一种人准备好把这记在自己的收入账本中,当作他的付出。另一种人并不准备如此行事,但在他头脑中也把那个人看成自己的债主,并清楚他的所作所为。第三种人在某种意义上甚至不知道自己已经做了事,他就像产葡萄的藤子,结出了果子,却不寻求回报。人做了好事,就应该像马奔跑,狗追踪猎物,蜜蜂酿蜜一样,不必大声召唤别人来看,而是径直去做另一件好事,就像葡萄藤再一次按季结果一样。——人必须如此行为,不事声张?——是的。——但这件事确是必需:洞察他人的行为,因为据说社会性动物的特征即是能认识到自己是以群居的方式进行工作,也确实希望他的同伴认识到这一点。——你所言是真的,但你不明白现在所言的是什么意思,因此你将变成我上面所说的那些人中的一个,他们被某种看上去确实有道理的东西所误导。但如果你选择去理解这里所说的一切,那不要害怕因为这个原因而忽略任何社会行为。
One man, when he has done a service to another, is ready to set it down to his account as a favour conferred. Another is not ready to do this, but still in his own mind he thinks of the man as his debtor, and he knows what he has done. A third in a manner does not even know what he has done, but he is like a vine which has produced grapes, and seeks for nothing more after it has once produced its proper fruit. As a horse when he has run, a dog when he has tracked the game, a bee when it has made the honey, so a man when he has done a good act, does not call out for others to come and see, but he goes on to another act, as a vine goes on to produce again the grapes in season.- Must a man then be one of these, who in a manner act thus without observing it?- Yes.- But this very thing is necessary, the observation of what a man is doing: for, it may be said, it is characteristic of the social animal to perceive that he is working in a social manner, and indeed to wish that his social partner also should perceive it.- It is true what thou sayest, but thou dost not rightly understand what is now said: and for this reason thou wilt become one of those of whom I spoke before, for even they are misled by a certain show of reason. But if thou wilt choose to understand the meaning of what is said, do not fear that for this reason thou wilt omit any social act.
雅典人的祈祷:呜呼,宙斯大神,雨露、雨露,请降雨露,润我田野,润我平原。——实际上,我们要么完全不应该祈祷,要么只应该以这种简单而高贵的方式祈祷。
A prayer of the Athenians: Rain, rain, O dear Zeus, down on the ploughed fields of the Athenians and on the plains.- In truth we ought not to pray at all, or we ought to pray in this simple and noble fashion.




[此贴子已经被作者于2006-5-6 0:38:42编辑过]

回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 13:29:32   
198
follow 目光跟随。
========
有道理。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 16:24:13   
199
Thou sayest, Men cannot admire the sharpness of thy wits.- Be it so: but there are many other things of which thou canst not say, I am not formed for them by nature.

你说,你的智慧无法让众人称道。——姑且如此:但另有许多事,你却不能说,自然本性没有让我具备。(be it so 就算如此吧)

Dost thou not see how many qualities thou art immediately able to exhibit, in which there is no excuse of natural incapacity and unfitness, and yet thou still remainest voluntarily below the mark?

你不见,有多少品质立刻就能展示,你却以天生无能力、不适应为借口,自暴自弃?

Or art thou compelled through being defectively furnished by nature to murmur, and to be stingy, and to flatter, and to find fault with thy poor body, and to try to please men, and to make great display, and to be so restless in thy mind?

难道你的那些埋怨、吝啬、谄媚、寻自己身体的缺陷、取悦他人、虚夸、心神不宁,都是上天没有照顾周全硬塞给你的?(be compelled to ...)

No, by the gods: but thou mightest have been delivered from these things long ago.

不,归了诸神,你早与这些东西一刀两断了。(虚拟态)

Only if in truth thou canst be charged with being rather slow and dull of comprehension, thou must exert thyself about this also, not neglecting it nor yet taking pleasure in thy dulness.

倘若你实际该受指责的仅仅在于领悟力慢和钝,则你也务必尽力克服这些缺点,切不可轻视、贻误。








[此贴子已经被作者于2006-5-5 16:39:29编辑过]

回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 16:50:22   
200
Thou sayest, Men cannot admire the sharpness of thy wits.- Be it so: but there are many other things of which thou canst not say, I am not formed for them by nature.

你说,你的智慧无法让众人称道。——姑且如此:但另有许多事,你却不能说,自然本性没有让我具备。(be it so 就算如此吧)
==================
唉,我把thou看成them了。谢谢,不过后面几个我觉得未必很恰当,我再看看。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 17:05:23   
201
好主贴
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 22:09:40   
202
文章提交者:six345331212 加帖在 文化散论 【凯迪网络】 http://www.kdnet.net

好主贴
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 22:12:48   
203
可得花点时间来慢慢读——
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 23:09:59   
204
伊壁鸠鲁(Epicurus, 公元前341~前270年) 古希腊哲学家、伊壁鸠鲁学派的创始人。伊壁鸠鲁成功地发展了阿瑞斯提普斯(Aristippus)的享乐主义,并将之与德谟克利特的原子論结合起来。他的学说的主要宗旨就是要达到不受干扰的宁静状态。

伊壁鸠鲁生于公元前341年的萨摩斯,但父母亲都是雅典人,他在18岁时搬到雅典,之后曾去过小亚细亚,并在那里受到德谟克利特哲学的影响,公元前207年开始在雅典建立了一个学派,这个学派在他去世之前一直在雅典活动。传说中该学派居于他的住房和庭院内,与外部世界完全隔绝,因此被人称为“花园哲学家”。据说在庭院的入口处有一块告示牌写着:“陌生人,你将在此过着舒适的生活。在这里享乐乃是至善之事。”

伊壁鸠鲁的学说和苏格拉底及柏拉图最大的不同在于,前者强调远离责任和社会活动。伊壁鸠鲁认为,最大的善来自快乐,没有快乐,就不可能有善。快乐包括肉体上的快乐,也包括精神上的快乐。伊壁鸠鲁区分了积极的快乐和消极的快乐,并认为消极的快乐拥有优先的地位,它是“一种厌足状态中的麻醉般的狂喜”。

同时,伊壁鸠鲁强调,在我们考量一个行动是否有趣时,我们必须同时考虑它所带来的副作用。在追求短暂快乐的同时,也必须考虑是否可能获得更大、更持久、更强烈的快乐。他还强调,肉体的快乐大部分是强加于我们的,而精神的快乐则可以被我们所支配,因此交朋友、欣赏艺术等也是一种乐趣。自我的欲望必须节制,平和的心境可以帮助我们忍受痛苦。

伊壁鸠鲁相信德谟克利特的原子论,但他并不认为原子的运动受各种自然法则的支配。伊壁鸠鲁否定宗教,否认神是最高的法则制定者,因此也就蔑视必然原则。伊壁鸠鲁悖论(Euthyphro Dilemma)是其著名遗产之一。伊壁鸠鲁也同意德谟克利特的有关“灵魂原子”的说法,认为人死后,灵魂原子离肉体而去,四处飞散,因此人死后并没有生命。他说:“死亡和我们没有关系,因为只要我们存在一天,死亡就不会来临,而死亡来临时,我们也不再存在了。”伊壁鸠鲁认为对死亡的恐惧是非理性的。因为对自身对死亡认识是对死亡本身的无知。

伊壁鸠鲁的学说并没有发展出科学的传统,但它自由思维的态度和反对迷信的实践,一直得到罗马帝国早期一些上层阶级成员的尊敬。而在今天,“Epicurean”这个词已经具有贬义,用来形容那些追求享乐的人们
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/5 23:18:09   
205
发表人:朝露可当酒
发表人邮件:qqww36@yahoo.com.cn
    Principal Doctrines
《学说要点》
By Epicurus
伊壁鸠鲁
Translated by Robert Drew Hicks
翻译:罗伯特•D•希克斯

1. A happy and eternal being has no trouble himself and brings no trouble upon any other being; hence he is exempt from movements of anger and partiality, for every such movement implies weakness.
1、一个幸福而永恒的人不会给自己找烦恼,也不会给他人找麻烦,因此他不会由于愤怒和偏见而心神波动,因为每一次这样的心神波动都意味着软弱。
2. Death is nothing to us; for the body, when it has been resolved into its elements, has no feeling, and that which has no feeling is nothing to us.
2、对我们而言,死亡无足轻重;对身体而言,当身体腐烂分解成构成它的元素时,已经没有感觉了,一个没有感觉的躯体对我们而言,无足轻重。
3. The magnitude of pleasure reaches its limit in the removal of all pain. When pleasure is present, so long as it is uninterrupted, there is no pain either of body or of mind or of both together.
3、当一切痛苦消失后,快乐达到了顶点;当快乐呈现时,只要我们快乐着,无论身体的或精神的痛苦,都消失了。
4. Continuous pain does not last long in the body; on the contrary, pain, if extreme, is present a short time, and even that degree of pain which barely outweighs pleasure in the body does not last for many days together. Illnesses of long duration even permit of an excess of pleasure over pain in the body.
身体的痛苦不可能长久持续,相反,极端的痛苦只会短时出现,即使身体的痛苦程度刚刚能影响我享受快乐,它也不会延续很多天,慢性病人身体中快乐甚至可能压过病痛。
5. It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly, and it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living pleasantly. Whenever any one of these is lacking, when, for instance, the person is not able to live wisely, though he lives well and justly, it is impossible for him to live a pleasant life.
5、快乐的生活不可能没有智慧、健康和公正;有了智慧、健康和公正就不可能没有快乐。三者中无论少了哪一个,比如一个人生活中少了智慧,他就不可能过着快乐的生活。
6. In order to obtain security from other people any means whatever of procuring this was a natural good.
6、为了在与他人的相处中获得自身的安全保证,不择手段是一种自然的善。
7. Some people have sought to become famous and renowned, thinking that thus they would make themselves secure against their fellow-humans. If, then, the life of such persons really was secure, they attained natural good; if, however, it was insecure, they have not attained the end which by nature's own prompting they originally sought.
7、有人追逐浮名,以为这样可以帮助他们在与同伴的相处中获得安全。如果这种人的生活由此真的变得安全了,那他们就达到了自然的善;但如果相反,那他们就没有通过自然自身的促进而达到他们原本追求的目标。
8. No pleasure is in itself evil, but the things which produce certain pleasures entail annoyances many times greater than the pleasures themselves.
8、快乐本身无罪,但产生特定快乐的事物却肯定也会产生烦恼,而且这些烦恼要比所产生的快乐大很多倍。
9. If all pleasure had been capable of accumulation, -- if this had gone on not only be recurrences in time, but all over the frame or, at any rate, over the principal parts of human nature, there would never have been any difference between one pleasure and another, as in fact there is.
9、如果快乐可以积累,如果这种积累不仅在时间上,而且在人的全部,至少在人性的主要部分上进行,那么不同快乐之间绝不会有所区分,但事实上区别是存在的。
10. If the objects which are productive of pleasures to profligate persons really freed them from fears of the mind, -- the fears, I mean, inspired by celestial and atmospheric phenomena, the fear of death, the fear of pain; if, further, they taught them to limit their desires, we should never have any fault to find with such persons, for they would then be filled with pleasures to overflowing on all sides and would be exempt from all pain, whether of body or mind, that is, from all evil.
10、对那些浪荡者来说,如果他们精神上的恐惧,即由神迹和气候引起的恐惧、对死亡的恐惧和对痛苦的恐惧,真的能够由产生快乐的东西消除,而且,如果这些东西真的能让他们节制自己的欲望,那么,我们没有任何理由对这些人吹毛求疵,因为这样的话他们就可以让快乐占据自己的整个身心,排斥任何痛苦,无论是身体的还是精神的,这样也就摒弃了任何罪恶。
11. If we had never been molested by alarms at celestial and atmospheric phenomena, nor by the misgiving that death somehow affects us, nor by neglect of the proper limits of pains and desires, we should have had no need to study natural science.
11、如果我们从来没有因为上天和自然的警告而震撼,没有因为死亡不可言喻的影响而困惑,没有因为否定对痛苦和欲望的适当限制而迷茫,我们就没有必要去研究有关自然的学说。
12. It would be impossible to banish fear on matters of the highest importance, if a person did not know the nature of the whole universe, but lived in dread of what the legends tell us. Hence without the study of nature there was no enjoyment of unmixed pleasures.
12、如果一个人只是活在传说编制的恐惧之中,而对整个宇宙的本质一无所知,那么无论如何,恐惧不可消除,因此,没有对自然的研究,也就不能享受纯粹的快乐。
13. There would be no advantage in providing security against our fellow humans, so long as we were alarmed by occurrences over our heads or beneath the earth or in general by whatever happens in the boundless universe.
13、当天上或者地下,或者一般而言在无边的宇宙中发生的一切对我们提出警示时,我们为了自身的安全对同伴百般提防肯定无济于事。
14. When tolerable security against our fellow humans is attained, then on a basis of power sufficient to afford supports and of material prosperity arises in most genuine form the security of a quiet private life withdrawn from the multitude.
14、当我们找到适当的方式来提防同伴,并且拥有足够的权力来获得支持,在真正意义上拥有富裕的物质财富,那么我们就可以过上比群氓更有安全保障的平静的私人生活。
15. Nature's wealth at once has its bounds and is easy to procure; but the wealth of vain fancies recedes to an infinite distance.
15、自然的财富是有限的,很容易获取,但虚妄想象的财富遥不可及。
16. Fortune but seldom interferes with the wise person; his greatest and highest interests have been, are, and will be, directed by reason throughout the course of his life.
16、财富对智者几乎没有吸引力,智者最高最大的兴趣过去、现在和将来都在于:终其一生以理性指导人生。
17. The just person enjoys. the greatest peace of mind, while the unjust is full of the utmost disquietude.
17、公正者快乐,因为他拥有最平和的心灵,而不公正的心灵充斥着极度的忧虑。
18. Pleasure in the body admits no increase when once the pain of want has been removed; after that it only admits of variation. The limit of pleasure in the mind, however, is reached when we reflect on the things themselves and their congeners which cause the mind the greatest alarms.
18、一旦因需缺而产生的痛苦消失了,肉体的快乐也就到顶了,此后只有其他需求才能产生快乐。但只有当我们对事物本身及在我们心灵中唤起最大注意力的事物的类进行沉思时,才能获得心灵的快乐。
19. Unlimited time and limited time afford an equal amount of pleasure, if we measure the limits of that pleasure by reason.
19、如果我们用理性来衡量快乐的限度,那么无论时间是有限的还是无限的,快乐的总量不变。
20. The body receives as unlimited the limits of pleasure; and to provide it requires unlimited time. But the mind, grasping in thought what the end and limit of the body is, and banishing the terrors of futurity, procures a complete and perfect life, and has no longer any need of unlimited time. Nevertheless it does not shun pleasure, and even in the hour of death, when ushered out of existence by circumstances, the mind does not lack enjoyment of the best life.
20、身体探究快乐无限的极限,这需要无限的时间;心灵在思维中把握住了身体的归属和局限,消除了对于未来的恐惧,实现了一种完满的人生,并且不再需要无限的时间。不过心灵并不逃避快乐,即使是在死亡来临之时,当环境迫使我们走向死亡之时,心灵也并不缺乏对最美好人生的享受。
21. He who understands the limits of life knows how easy it is to procure enough to remove the pain of want and make the whole of life complete and perfect. Hence he has no longer any need of things which are not to be won save by labor and conflict.
21、明白生命限度的人懂得,要获得足够的财富来满足欲求轻而易举,从而让整个人生趋于完满。因此这种人对任何需要辛勤劳作和艰苦奋斗才能获得的东西不再有欲求。
22. We must take into account as the end all that really exists and all clear evidence of sense to which we refer our opinions; for otherwise everything will be full of uncertainty and confusion.
22、我们必须思考所有真实存在的东西和所有我们谈及、并被清晰感觉到的东西;而其他的则充满了不确定性和混沌。
23. If you fight against all your sensations, you will have no standard to which to refer, and thus no means of judging even those judgments which you pronounce false.
23、如果你与自己的感觉作对,那么对自己谈及的东西你也将没有任何标准,这样的话你甚至没有办法对那些你断言为假的东西作出判断。
24. If you reject absolutely any single sensation without stopping to discriminate with respect to that which awaits confirmation between matter of opinion and that which is already present, whether in sensation or in feelings or in any immediate perception of the mind, you will throw into confusion even the rest of your sensations by your groundless belief and so you will be rejecting the standard of truth altogether. If in your ideas based upon opinion you hastily affirm as true all that awaits confirmation as well as that which does not, you will not escape error, as you will be maintaining complete ambiguity whenever it is a case of judging between right and wrong opinion.
24、如果你断然否定一切感觉,对有待确认是意见还是事实(无论是感觉、知觉还是任何形式的心灵直接感知)的东西不加区别地鄙视,那你将被自己无根据的信仰拖入混乱,甚至扰乱自己其他的感觉,进而将完全否定真理的标准。如果你根据自己建立在意见基础上的观点,轻率地把所有有待确认的和已经确认的东西看成同样得真实,你不可能不犯错误,在任何一个需要做出是正确还是错误意见判断的情况下,你将不知所措。
25. If you do not on every separate occasion refer each of your actions to the end prescribed by nature, but instead of this in the act of choice or avoidance swerve aside to some other end, your acts will not be consistent with your theories.
25、如果你不把自己每一个个别行为和自然的目的相关联,而是选择或者突然转向其他目的,你将言行不一。
26. All such desires as lead to no pain when they remain ungratified are unnecessary, and the longing is easily got rid of, when the thing desired is difficult to procure or when the desires seem likely to produce harm.
26、我们希望消除痛苦,但当这一希望不可能实现时,它就是多余的,当我们欲求的东西可望不可及或这一欲求可能产生危害时,这样的欲求很容易放弃。
27. Of all the means which are procured by wisdom to ensure happiness throughout the whole of life, by far the most important is the acquisition of friends.
27、通过智慧获得的所有诀窍,在生命的整个过程中都有助于确保幸福,其中最重要的诀窍是赢得朋友。
28. The same conviction which inspires confidence that nothing we have to fear is eternal or even of long duration, also enables us to see that even in our limited conditions of life nothing enhances our security so much as friendship.
28、对永恒甚至耐久的信赖激发起我们无所畏惧的信心,让我们看到,即使在我们有限的人生中,没有什么东西比友谊更能增强我们的安全感。
29. Of our desires some are natural and necessary others are natural, but not necessary; others, again, are neither natural nor necessary, but are due to illusory opinion.
29、我们的欲望有一部分是自然的而且是必要的,有一部分是自然的,但不必要,其他欲望即不自然也不必要,而是由错误的意见产生。
30. Those natural desires which entail no pain when not gratified, though their objects are vehemently pursued, are also due to illusory opinion; and when they are not got rid of, it is not because of their own nature, but because of the person's illusory opinion.
30、那些没有满足也不会产生痛苦的自然欲望,尽管人们疯狂地追求其目的,但也归于错误的意见;这些欲望之所以没有被抛弃,不是由于其自身的性质,也是由于人们错误的意见。
31. Natural justice is a symbol or expression of usefullness, to prevent one person from harming or being harmed by another.
31、自然公平是有用性的象征或表达,用于阻止人们伤害他人或受到他人伤害。
32. Those animals which are incapable of making covenants with one another, to the end that they may neither inflict nor suffer harm, are without either justice or injustice. And those tribes which either could not or would not form mutual covenants to the same end are in like case.
32、那些无法和其他种类共处的动物,最终无法对其他动物造成伤害,也不可能受到伤害,对它们而言,无所谓公平或不公平。那些不能或不愿与其他部落共处的部落,最终的结局也是如此。
33. There never was an absolute justice, but only an agreement made in reciprocal association in whatever localities now and again from time to time, providing against the infliction or suffering of harm.
33、没有绝对的公平,只有在具体时空中达成的互惠协议,用于防止承受或遭受伤害。
34. Injustice is not in itself an evil, but only in its consequence, viz. the terror which is excited by apprehension that those appointed to punish such offenses will discover the injustice.
34、不公平就其本身而言不是罪恶,就其后果而言,则是。对不公平行为将要遭受到的惩罚的担忧造成的恐惧将会揭示不公平。
35. It is impossible for the person who secretly violates any article of the social compact to feel confident that he will remain undiscovered, even if he has already escaped ten thousand times; for right on to the end of his life he is never sure he will not be detected.
35、对那些偷偷摸摸触犯了社会契约的人来说,他们不可能确信自己一辈子不会被发现,即使他已经逃脱了一万次,就算在他临死的那一刻,他也永远不可能保证他不会被发现。
36. Taken generally, justice is the same for all, to wit, something found useful in mutual association; but in its application to particular cases of locality or conditions of whatever kind, it varies under different circumstances.
36、一般而言,人们公认公平即在相互协作过程中有用的某种东西,但当把公平这一概念用于特定时空下的具体事例时,公平的定义随情况的变化而不同。
37. Among the things accounted just by conventional law, whatever in the needs of mutual association is attested to be useful, is thereby stamped as just, whether or not it be the same for all; and in case any law is made and does not prove suitable to the usefulness of mutual association, then this is no longer just. And should the usefulness which is expressed by the law vary and only for a time correspond with the prior conception, nevertheless for the time being it was just, so long as we do not trouble ourselves about empty words, but look simply at the facts.
37、对由习俗所掌管的事物,只要在相互协作中有用,就可以打上正义的印戳,而不管人们是否公认它;任何法律,只要它对相互协作无所促进,就不再是正义的。假如用法律表述的有用性不断变化,只能暂时性地符合先决条件,那么只要我们不拘泥于空洞的词句,而直接关注事实,那么在这段时间里法律还是可以称为正义的。
38. Where without any change in circumstances the conventional laws, when judged by their consequences, were seen not to correspond with the notion of justice, such laws were not really just; but wherever the laws have ceased to be useful in consequence of a change in circumstances, in that case the laws were for the time being just when they were useful for the mutual association of the citizens, and subsequently ceased to be just when they ceased to be useful.
38、如果在特定的环境下,习俗导致的结果与正义的概念格格不入,那么这种习俗也不是真正正义的;但无论在哪里,习俗都会由于环境的变化而不再有用,在这种情况下,当习俗对公民相互间的协作有用时,它就是正义的,相应地,当它不再有用时就不能称之为正义的。
39. He who best knew how to meet fear of external foes made into one family all the creatures he could; and those he could not, he at any rate did not treat as aliens; and where he found even this impossible, he avoided all association, and, so far as was useful, kept them at a distance.
39、那些最懂得如何应付对外部敌人的恐惧的人,能够团结所有能团结的人,让他们成为一个大家庭;对那些不能团结的人,他无论如何不会像对待外人一样对待他们;如果这也做不到,他就会避免任何形式的联系,只要能不发生冲突,他就会与他们保持距离。
40. Those who were best able to provide themselves with the means of security against their neighbors, being thus in possession of the surest guarantee, passed the most agreeable life in each other's society; and their enjoyment of the fullest intimacy was such that, if one of them died before his time, the survivors did not mourn his death as if it called for sympathy.
40、那些最有办法提防邻居,保障自己的安全的人,通过拥有最可靠的担保,在各自的社会中过着最值得称道的生活;他们享受着极度的亲昵,快乐无比,以致如果其中一人不幸夭折,活着的人不会象在乞求同情一样,为他的死哀号不已。

THE END
全文完



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发表人:朝露可当酒
发表人邮件:qqww36@yahoo.com.cn
    今天刚译完伊壁鸠鲁的《学说要点》,很有意思,他文章探讨的主题:幸福、正义(公平)是哲学的基本主题,伊壁鸠鲁凭此文对人类思想宝库增添了一块璀璨的宝石,他对幸福和正义的观点与柏拉图截然不同,以此为基础看,他的政治哲学导出的可能和柏拉图政治哲学导出的正好相反的,一个可以看成是现代世俗民主政治的鼻祖,一个是古典权威主义和极权主义的鼻祖,值得深入研究。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/6 0:31:29   
206
- It is true what thou sayest, but thou dost not rightly understand what is now said: and for this reason thou wilt become one of those of whom I spoke before, for even they are misled by a certain show of reason. But if thou wilt choose to understand the meaning of what is said, do not fear that for this reason thou wilt omit any social act.

你所言是对的,但你并没有正确理解现在所谈论的东西:为条这理由(群居动物的特性...),你将成为我以前所说过的那种人,他们这些人正是为种种装门面的理由所误导。但如果你愿意弄懂我说话的真义,你就不用担心会为这条理由而错失任何为社会服务的机会。

====================================================

show  装门面的东西。

choose  愿意,想。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/6 0:40:07   
207
为条这理由(群居动物的特性...)=======这个不是很赞同。
show of reason====似乎有理
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/6 1:12:32   
208
下载读。很好,得细读才行。
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/6 2:35:54   
209
伊壁鸠鲁悖论:

如果是上帝想阻止“恶”而阻止不了,那么上帝就是无能的;
如果是上帝能阻止“恶”而不愿阻止,那么上帝就是坏的;
如果是上帝既不想阻止也阻止不了“恶”,那么上帝就是既无能又坏;
如果是上帝既想阻止又能阻止“恶”,那为什么我们的世界充满了“恶”呢?
回帖人: | 只看此人 | 不看此人 | 2006/5/6 3:00:00   
210
临睡一顶。
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